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Synonyms: accounts, banking, business, commerce, economics, financial affairs, investment, money, money management

Business Financial Accounts
describe the performance of your business. Management accounts are aimed at helping you to plan your business and make decisions about key areas such as sales, margins and stock.

New small business owners may run their businesses in a relaxed way and may not see the need to budget. However, if you are planning for your business' future, you will need to fund your plans. Budgeting is the most effective way to control your cashflow, allowing you to invest in new opportunities at the appropriate time.

(To know more about the many finance acronyms consult the list below)
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AAA                      Agency and Administration Agreement

ACH                      Automated Clearinghouse

ACP                       Average Collection Period

ACRS                    Accelerated Cost Recovery System

ADB                      Asian Development Bank

ADR                      American Depository Receipt

ADS                      American Depository Shares

ADSCR                 Annual Debt Service Coverage Ratio

AfD                       Agence Française de Développement

AfDB                     African Development Bank

AfDF                     African Development Fund

AG                         Attorney General

AIBD                     Association of International Bond Dealers

AIU                       American International Underwriters

APT                       Arbitrage Pricing Theory

APV                      Adjusted Present Value

AWA                    Amendment and Waiver Agreement


BAFO                   Best and Final Offer

BAR                      Builders' All Risk (insurance)

BATRI                   Borrower, Amount, Term, Repayment Method, Interest Basis plus Margins

BBSY                     Refers to a screen on the Reuters Monitor System that shows benchmark interest rates used to price variable rate loans

BCA                      Basic Credit Approval

B/E                        Bill of Exchange

B/L                        Bill of Lading

BIPS                      Basis Points

BIS                        Bank for International Settlements

BLA                       Bilateral Agency (e.g., U.S. Export-Import Bank)

BLT                       Build-Lease-Transfer

bp                          Basis point (1/100 of 1%, or 0.0001)

BDOT                    Build-Design-Operate-Transer

BLT                       Build-Lease-Transfer

BOO                      Build-Own-Operate

BOOS                    Build, Own, Operate, and Sell

BOOT                    Build-Own-Operate-Transfer

BOT                       Build-Own-Transfer

BTO                       Build-Transfer-Operate

Btu                         British thermal unit


CAC                      Collective Action Clause

CADS                   Cash Available for Debt Service

CAGR                   Compound Annual Growth Rate

CAMENA             Central Asia/Middle East/North Africa

CAO                      Compliance Advisor/Ombudsperson

CapEx                    Capital Expenditure

CAPM                   Capital Asset Pricing Model

CBO                      Collateralized Bond Obligation

CCF                      Capital Cash Flow

CCR                      Corporate Credit Rating

CCGT                    Combined Cycle Gas Turbine

CDC                      Commonwealth Development Corporation (United Kingdom)

CDO                      Collateralized Debt Obligation

CDS                      Credit Default Swap

CEN                      Confiscation, Expropriation, and Nationalization (collectively, “CEN” perils)

CEND                   Confiscation, Expropriation, Nationalization and Deprivation

CfD                       Contract for Differences

CGF                      Credit Guarantee Facility

CHIPS                   New York’s Clearing House Interbank Payment System

CIF                        Cost, Insurance, and Freight

CIP                        Covered Interest Parity

CIRR                     Commercial Interest Reference Rates

CIS                        Commonwealth of Independent States

CLO                      Collateralized Loan Obligation

CME                      Chicago Mercantile Exchange

COBA                   Cost/Benefit Analysis

COD                      Commercial Operation Date

COFACE               Compagnie Française d’Assurance pour le Commerce Exterieur (French export credit agency)

COMEX                New York Commodities Exchange

CP                         Commercial Paper

CP                         Currency Pool

CPs                        Conditions Precedent

CPI                        Consumer Price Index

CRA                      Contingency Reserve Account

CSA                      Conditional Sale Agreement

CSF                       Critical Success Factor

CFSB                    Credit Suisse First Boston

CSO                      Civil Society Organization

CTA                       Capacity and Tolling Agreement

CTA                       Common Terms Agreement

CTS                       Common Terms Sheet

CUP                       Cooperative Underwriting Program

CWSRF                 Clean Water State Revolving Fund


DBSA                    Development Bank of South Africa

DCF                      Discounted Cash Flow

DCMF                   Design, Construct, Manage, and Finance

DCR                      Drawdown Cover Ratio

D:E                        Debt to Equity

DFI                        Development Finance Institution

DIBOR                  Dublin Inter–Bank Offered Rate

DIS                        Delay-in-Startup (insurance)

DLDs                     Delay Liquidated Damages

DOD                      Debt Outstanding and Disbursed

DSCR                    Debt Service Coverage Ratio

DSM                      Demand Side Management

DSO                      Direct Service Organization

DSPA                    Debt Service Payment Account

DSRA                    Debt Service Reserve Account

DT                         Design Team

DTC                      Depositary Trust Company


EA                         Environmental assessment

EAP                       Environmental Action Plan

EBIAT                   Earnings Before Interest but After Taxes

EBIT                      Earnings Before Interest and Taxes

EBITDA                Earnings before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization

EBRD                    European Bank for Reconstruction and Development

EC                         European Community

ECA                      Export Credit Agency

ECF                       Equity Cash Flow

ECGD                    Export Credit Guarantee Department (U.K. export credit agency)

ECP                       Euro Commercial Paper

ECU                      European Community Unit

EDC                      Export Development Canada (Canadian export credit agency)

EFIC                     Export Finance and Insurance Corporation (Australian export credit agency)

EFL                       External Financing Limit

EIA                        Environmental Impact Assessment

EIS                        Environmental Impact Statement

EIB                        European Investment Bank

EIU                        Economist Intelligence Unit

EMBI                     Emerging Market Bonds Index (published by J. P. Morgan)

EMU                      Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union

EOD                       Event of Default

EPC                       Engineering, Procurement, and Construction

ERBD                    European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (targeted to Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union)

ERISA                   Employee Retirement Income Security Act

EPS                       Earnings per Share

ESA                       Equity Support Agreement

ESIA                     Environmental and Social Impact Assessment

EU                         European Union


FAQ                      Free at Quay

FAS                       Free Alongside

FASB                    Financial Accounting Standards Board

FCF                       Free Cash Flow

FDI                        Foreign Direct Investment

FERC                     Federal Energy Regulatory Commission

FIAS                      Foreign Investment Advisory Service (part of the World Bank Group)

FIBOR                   Frankfurt Inter–Bank Offered Rate

FIFO                      First In, First Out

FM                         Force Majeure

FOB                       Free on Board

ForEx                     Foreign Exchange

FRA                       Forward Rate Agreement

FRB                       Federal Reserve Board (Washington, D.C.)

FRNs                     Floating Rate Notes

FSC                       Foreign Sales Corporation

FSU                       Former Soviet Union

FV                         Future Value

FX                         Foreign Exchange

FY                         Fiscal Year


GAAP                   Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (e.g., U.S. GAAP)

GATS                    General Agreement on Trade In Services

GATT                    General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

GDP                       Gross Domestic Product

GDRs                     Global Depositary Receipts

GNF                       Global Note Facility

GNI                        Gross National Income

GNP                       Gross National Product

GSM                      Global systems for mobiles, a mobile phone standard.

G-5                        Group of five countries (France, Germany, Japan, U.K., and U.S.)

G-7                        The G–5 countries plus Canada and Italy

G-10                     The G–7 countries plus Belgium, the Netherlands, Sweden  and Switzerland. The group has 11 members but is still known as the G10. It aims to coordinate monetary and fiscal policies for a stable world economic system.


HDSCR                 Historic Debt Service Cover Ratio

HIBOR                  Hong Kong Inter–Bank Offered Rate

HIPC                     Heavily Indebted Poor Country

HoldCo                 Holding Company


IA                          Implementation Agreement

IBFs                      International Banking Facilities

IBRD                     International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (a member of the World Bank Group)

ICA                       International Court of Arbitration

ICB                       International competitive bidding

ICC                       International Chamber of Commerce

ICRG                    International Country Risk Guide

ICR                       Issuer Credit Rating

ICSID                   International Center for Settlement of Investment Disputes

IDA                       International Development Association (a member of the World Bank Group)

IDB                        Inter–American Development Bank

IDC                       Interest During Construction

IDRs                      International Depositary Receipts

IE                           Independent Engineer

IFC                        International Finance Corporation (a member of the World Bank Group)

IIC                         Inter-American Investment Corporation

ILFAs                    Individual Loan Facility Agreements

IMF                       International Monetary Fund

IMLAs                   Initial Mandated Lead Arrangers

IPA                        Investment Project Authorization

IPO                        Initial Public Offering

IPP                        Independent Power Producer (or Independent Power Plant)

IPR                        Initial Project Review

IRB                        Internal–Rating–Based (an approach under the Basel II Accord)

IR                          Interest rate (risk or exposure)

IRR                        Internal Rate of Return

ISDA                     International Swap and Derivatives Association

IsDB                      Islamic Development Bank

ITC                        Investment Tax Credit

ITN                        Invitation to Negotiate

ITT                        Invitation to Tender


JBIC                      Japan Bank for International Cooperation

JCI                        Japan Consulting Institute

JEXIM                   Japan Export–Import Bank

JIBOR                   Jakarta Inter–Bank Offered Rate

JFS                        Joint Feasibility Study

JOA                       Joint Operating Agreement


KExim                   Korean Export–Import Bank

KfW                      Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau

KIBOR                 Kuwait or Karachi Inter–Bank Offered Rate


LAC                      Latin America and the Caribbean

LCAI                     London Court of International Arbitration

LCVI                     Liquidity, Credit, and Volatility Index

LDCs                     Less Developed Countries

LIB                        Limited International Bidding

LIBID                    London Inter–Bank Bid Rate

LIBOR                   London Inter–Bank Offered Rate

LIFO                      Last In, First Out

L/C                         Letter of Credit

LDs                        Liquidated Damages

LLA                       Land Lease Agreement

LLC                       Limited Liability Company

LLCR                    Loan Life Cover Ratio

LME                      London Metals Exchange

LNG                      Liquefied Natural Gas

LOC                      Letter of Credit

LOI                        Letter of Intent

LOT                       Lease, Operate and Transfer

LOU                      Letter of Understanding

LPG                       Liquefied petroleum gas

LP                          Limited Partner

LSTK                     Lump-sum Turnkey Contract

LT                          Levelized Tariff

LTMAs                  Long-Term Maintenance Agreements


MAC                     Material Adverse Change

MACRS                Modified Cost Recovery System

MAE                     Material Adverse Event or Material Adverse Effect

MDB                     Multilateral Development Bank

MIBOR                 Mumbai (formerly Bombay) Inter–Bank Offered Rate

MIGA                    Multilateral Investment Guarantee Association (a member of the World Bank Group)

MIRR                    Modified Internal Rate of Return

MITI                     Ministry of International Trade and Industry (Japan)

MLA                     Mandated Lead Arranger

MLA                     Multilateral Agency (e.g., International Finance Corporation)

MNC                    Multinational Corporation

MOF                     Ministry of Finance (Japan)

MOF                     Multiple Options Facility

MOT                     Modernize, Operate and Transfer

MOU                     Memorandum of Understanding

MPP                      Merchant Power Plant

MSCI                    Morgan Stanley Capital International


NAFTA                North American Free Trade Agreement

NEPAD                New Partnership for Africa’s Development

NFFO                   Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation

NGO                     Nongovernmental Organization

NIF                       Note Issuance Facility

NOPAT                Net Operating Profit after Tax

NWC                    Net Working Capital

NPV                      Net Present Value


ODA                      Overseas Development Administration

ODA                      Official Development Assistance

OECD                    Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

OM                        Offering Memorandum

O&M                     Operation and Maintenance

OPEC                    Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries

OPEX                    Operating Expenses

OPIC                     Overseas Private Investment Corporation


p.a.                         Per annum (annually)

PCG                       Partial Credit Guarantee

PDSCR                  Projected Debt Service Cover Ratio

PE                          Public Enterprise

PFA                       Project Funds Agreement

PFC                       Project Financial Completion

PFI                        Private Finance Initiative

PFI                        Project Finance International (a trade journal)

PIBOR                  Paris Inter–Bank Offered Rate

PIM                       Preliminary Information Memorandum

PLCR                    Project Life Coverage Ratio

PLDs                     Performance LDs

PLF                       Plant Load Factor

P/N                        Promissory Note

PPA                       Power Purchase Agreement

PPB                       Provisional Preferred Bidder

PPI                        Private Participation in Infrastructure (Note: can also be the Producer Price Index)

PPP                       Public-Private Partnership or Purchasing Power Parity

PQQ                      Pre-Qualification Questionnaire

PRG                      Partial Risk Guarantee

PRG                      Project Review Group

PRI                        Political Risk Insurance

PSEDP                  Private Sector Energy Development Project

PSEF                     Private Sector Energy Fund

PSIDC                   Private Sector Infrastructure Development Corporation

PSIF                      Private Sector Infrastructure Fund

PTC                       Production Tax Credit

PURPA                  Public Utilities Regulatory Policy Act (of 1978)

PUC                       Public Utilities Commission

PUCHA                 Public Utility Holding Company Act (of 1935)

PV                         Present Value


QIB                      Qualified Institutional Buyer


RAAP                   Regulatory Accepted Accounting Principles

RAP                      Resettlement Action Plan

RAROC                Risk Adjusted Return on Capital

RCOD                   Required Commercial Operations Date

RCR                      Repayment Cover Ratio

RDs                       Reserved Discretion(s)

RECs                     Regional Electricity Companies

RFP                       Request for Proposals

RMR                     Reliability Must Run (power plant)

ROA                     Return on Assets

ROE                      Return on Equity

ROI                       Return on Investment

ROIC                    Return on Invested Capital

ROO                     Rehabilitate-Own-Operate

ROT                      Rehabilitate-Operate-Transfer

ROW                     Right of Way

RPI                        Retail Price Index

RPS                       Renewable Portfolio Standard

RRR                       Required Rate of Return

RSA                       Resource Supply Agreement

RUF                       Revolving Underwriting Facility


SACE                    Istituto per i Servizi Assicurativi del Commercio Estero (Italian export credit agency)

S&P                      Standard & Poor’s Corporation

SCP                       Single Currency Pool

SCR                       Sovereign Credit Rating

SDR                       Special Drawing Rights

SEC                       Securities and Exchange Commission (United States)

SIBOR                   Singapore Inter–Bank Offered Rate

SIC                        Standard Industrial Classification

SOE                       State-owned Enterprise

SOT                       Supply-Operate-Transfer

SPA                       Sales Purchase Agreement(s)

SPV                       Special-purpose Vehicle

SRF                       State Revolving Fund

SRI                        Socially Responsible Investment


TDA                      Trade Development Agency

T&D                      Transmission and Distribution

TIBOR                   Tokyo Inter–Bank Offered Rate

TRR                       Target Rate of Return

TRUF                    Transferable Revolving Underwriting Facility (RUF)

TSR                       Total Shareholder Return


UIRP                     Uncovered Interest Rate Parity

UNCTAD             United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

UNCITRAL          United Nations Commission on International Trade Law

UNDP                   United Nations Development Program

UNEP                    United Nations Environmental Program

USAID                   United States Agency for International Development

USEXIM                Export–Import Bank of the United States (U.S. export credit agency)


VAR                      Value at Risk

VAT                      Value-added Tax

VFM                     Value for Money

VRNs                    Variable Rate Notes

VPD                      Vehicles Per Day

VPP                       Volumetric Production Payment


WACC                  Weighted Average Cost of Capital

WTO                     World Trade Organization


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